Category: Style

The Different Genres of Journalism

Journalism is defined as the discipline of gathering, verifying, reporting and publishing of information regarding current events, issues and people through newspapers, magazines, radio, television and the new medium, the internet. People who practice journalism are identified as journalists.

Journalism is sometimes referred to as the first draft of history. Its main activity is to report major events and latest developments while answering the basic “W” questions of who, what, why, where and when. It focuses on covering institutions like government and businesses, as well as, the cultural side of the society like arts and entertainment.
Journalism comes in different forms but the common ideal setting is to inform the public. Among the known genres of journalism include investigative, muckraking, civic, business and photojournalism.

Investigative journalism is a genre of journalism that concentrates deeply on a single topic of interest. It typically demands a lot of investigative work in order to yield results. Reporters employ several means like going undercover, using whistleblowers or studying of neglected archives. Usually the topic involves crime, political corruption, environmental violations and corporate wrongdoings. The classic example is the reporting of the Watergate Scandal by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein for The Washington Post which earned a Pulitzer Prize for Public Service in 1973.

Muckraking is a type of investigative journalism that is reform-oriented. The journalist in this genre strives to search for and expose scandals and abuses and acts to perform a watchdog function. It was popular in late 19th and early 20th centuries. Its rise corresponded with the Progressive Era. The influence of muckraking was great. In fact, Ralph Nader’s article, Unsafe at Any Speed in 1965, led to reforms in the automotive manufacturing in the U.S.

Civic journalism (also known as public journalism or citizen journalism) is journalism work that is produced by ordinary people. Readers and members of the community are encouraged and empowered to participate and play an active role in the collection, reporting and dissemination of news and information.

Business journalism is a journalism that is dedicated to covering every aspect of business. The coverage includes workplaces, companies, economic indicators and personal finance. This type rose to popularity in the 1990s. One of the top newspapers focusing on business journalism is The Wall Street Journal.

Finally, there is photojournalism. Photojournalism focuses on and utilizes images to convey the news story. It usually refers to still images but may also refer to broadcast videos. The main qualities of timeliness, objectivity and narrative set photojournalism apart from other branches and type of photography.

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Fashion, 400 Years In The Making


The past, has always held a certain fascination for me. I love learning about history (in a way which does not involve analysing sources like the school taught type) and I suppose that may be why I adore vintage fashion. It is like owning a tangible slice of that era gone by – the aftermath or legacy of a generation as it were. Thompson Reid has tons of vintage styled clothing like these beanie hats for men.  I honestly believe you can tell a lot about an time period through the dress they chose to wear; not only that, but vintage styling seemed to be more elegant – something the modern world lacks I often feel.I’ll admit to not feeling fully confident on my ability to look at a design and say “oh yes, very reminiscent of 1920s Paris” or some similar mumbo jumbo, but I reckon I’m fairly versed up on at least the basics (i.e. not in depth, but a general jist) of the 1900s – present day (this book helped). So, in a bid to go that one step further with learning about historical dress, I purchased Four Hundred Years of Fashion a short time ago.


The book is, as the blurb states:This lively history of fashion has become a classic in its field. Based on the V&A’s world famous collection, it tells the story of men’s and women’s fashionable dress through the ages right up to the present day. Over 200 illustrations cover clothes for all occasions and include a wide range of fashion accessories. The expertise of the Museum’s Department of Textiles and Dress gives the text unequalled authority and makes it indispensable for students and anyone with an interest in fashion.Considering the fact that I had not read the blurb or seen the book prior to purchasing (amazon & all), it’s hardly surprising that I was slightly shocked when I received it. My first impression was that it was a heck of a lot thinner than I imagined it to be. Couple that with the somewhat drab look of the pages (I’m a fairly visual person and though I love reading novels, for books of this nature, I’m always more enticed to read when the presentation is interesting) and you may be able to grasp why I ended up not reading much of the text.


Accessories pages featured toward back Despite the downfall of the layout, the book is informative and well written (what I did read of it that was, I am planning to read through all the text in small sessions, so I do not get bored or overwhelmed with information). There are a fair few images of the V&A collection which allows the reader to actually see the clothes – I would definitely LOVE to see them in real life. It is structured, as it’s split into sections covering pre-1900s, post-1900s, men’s, women’s and accessories. I like the fact that it covers menswear, something which is often neglected in fashion books, but is just as essential to know about when studying historical wear or fashion in general. It’s all inspiration at the end of the day – you can easily take a technique or idea from menswear to translate into womenswear and vice versa.



Menswear through the ages Of course, as it frequently states throughout the text, the collection of women’s clothing is rather more comprehensive than the men’s, simply due to the typical nature of women and the typical nature of men. There were some absolutely beautiful clothes featured! It’s astounding, especially when you consider that the majority of the pre-1900 clothes are hand-made – no machines whatsoever, just a needle and thread. I found that, especially with the post-1900 stuff, I could picture wearing it in the present day. Maybe it’s just my aesthetic which means that I can easily picture wearing something 1940s-esque today (clearly I like looking like I just stepped out from a different time!) or maybe it was just that I could imagine elements of certain outfits being incorporated into modern dress. Either way, for some of the styles, they did not seem outdated in the slightest – they seemed rather timeless.


Some of my favourites within the book Four Hundred Years of Fashion is, as the blurb states, an “indispensable for students and anyone with an interest in fashion“. It strikes me as a very useful reference tool as opposed to something which will literally spell out the components of vintage style. I love the fact that this book not only looks at ‘fashion’ (as in 20th century – present day, when the concept actually existed) but at styles of dress older than that (pre-1900s). I’d recommend it to mainly those who may be studying fashion or costume in some way (as I wish to be someday…), but if you’re like me and have a love of history & fashion, then it’s probably worth  at least a flick through.

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